ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
HEADWORD, (ALTERNATE) (ETYMOLOGY)
SENSE [GRAMMAR] ENGLISH DEFINITION includingEXAMPLES, IDIOMS. (USAGE notes in parentheses).
SEMANTIC CROSS REFERENCES: ge: Generic, wh: Whole, syn: Synonym, opp: Opposite, cn: Contrast, sa: See Also.
DERIVATIONS: rt: Root, st: Stative, ca: Causative, it: Intransitive, tr: Transitive, ps: Passive, cp: Causative-Passive, sg: Singular, pl: Plural, rp: Repeated Action, ot: One Time Action, do: Other Derivatives. (Any derivative followed
Headword. The headword is the most commonly used form of the word. In this lexicon, alphabetization counts only the initialwconsonant of geminate clusters and the initial vowel in long orwdouble vowels of the same articulation. Thus geminate or double consonants are found in the same place as the single consonants with the same articulation, and long or double vowels are found in the same place as the single vowel of the same articulation.All words beginning with ‘f’ are listed under their alternates in ‘h’. Forms prefixed with the causative prefix haka- are found under their root unless their definition merits a separate entry. Words that are entered separately under haka- are found listed under their root and followed by a ‘*’. If a word has different snses that appear to be related, these are entered under one eadword, but with numbered senses.
Alternates. Alternate forms of the headword are in bold face in parantheses following the headword.
Etymology. Following the alternate of the headword, the etymology of the headword is listed in parentheses. This includes the sources for borrowed words, the Sikaiana sources in compound words, and Proto-Polynesian source words.
Sense. Following the etymology is the numbered sense of meaning of the word in bold type. Note: unless otherwise stated, notes on usage, semantic cross-references, and derivations apply only to the sense that they are found under.
Grammar. Following the number of sense, in brackets [ ], is the grammatical classification of the sense of the headword.
English Definition. Following the grammatical definition is the English definition for the sense of the headword. The definition may be followed by compounds, short examples, or a sentence to clarify the meaning of the word. In words for technology or ritual, there is sometimes a brief discussion of cultural context. Idioms are included. When appropriate a literal translation of the idiom is given followed by a semicolon and then the figurative translation is given. All identifications of flora and fauna are tentative. Sentences used for examples are taken from a variety of sources: texts, conversations, and elicitation. Quotations taken from songs are marked TS traditional’ and MS ‘modern’. Following the definition any notes on usage are included in parentheses.
Semantic Cross References. The definition and usage notes are completed with a period. Then semantic cross references relevant to the sense of the headword are listed. All words listed under the semantic cross references are found under a separate entry in the lexicon.
Derivations. The semantic cross references are completed with a period. Then follow the various derivatives of the headword. Sometimes a brief English gloss is included..
PPN Proto-Polynesian PPN ^word ‘gloss’
Eng English root
Mota Mota root
Lua Luaniua root
na noun, a class, alienable
nao noun, a and o class: alienable for sponsor, inalienable for benefactor
nf noun, flora and fauna: if an identification is especially uncertain a ‘?’ is inserted
no noun, o class, inalienable
np noun, a class for human possessor; o class for the whole of which it is part
nq noun qualifier, adjective
nv noun and verb, mostly ritual and technology
pln place name
ps passive or ©Cia suffixed form, root given in etymology
psn personal name
q qualifier, modifies noun qualifiers and verb qualifiers
t/a tense aspect marker
vi intransitive verb
vp semi-transitive verb followed by preposition
vq verb qualifier, adverb
vs stative verb, often used as adjectives
vt transitive verb
Archaic Older form not known to younger speakers.
CR Christian Ritual. A word or meaning introduced by Christianity.
Demeaning Usage that is insulting or degrading
Figurative A meaning that is metaphoric or extended meaning.
MS Modern Song. Quotation is taken from a modern guitar song .
PCR Pre-Christian Ritual. A ritual that is no longer practiced.
Rare Speech that is very rare, not recognized by many people, even elder ones.
Recent A meaning that older Sikaiana people claim is recent
Restricted Speech referring to sex or defecation that should not be used in formal settings, especially between in-laws or cross-sex siblings.
TS Traditional Song. Quotation from a song composed in traditional style.
Semantic Cross References
cn Contrast: words that have related meanings
ge Generic: the generic term for the headword, as in ‘bird’ to ‘seagull’.
opp Opposite: antonyms, opposites.
sa See Also
syn Synonym: words with closely related meanings
wh Whole: the whole of which the headword is a part, as in ‘house’ to ‘roof beam’.
ca Causative: haka- prefixed form that is not transitive
cp Causative Passive derivative
it Intransitive derivative
ot One Time action derivative
pl Plural subject derivative
ps Passive or ©Cia affixed derivative
rt Root of headword
sg Singular subject derivative
st Stative derivative
tr Transitive derivative