H Dictionary


haa #1 (faa)

(from PPN ^fasi).

1.[vt]  to chop, to split, to cut as in cutting firewood.

st: mahaa

ps: vaasia

2.[vt]  to operate in a hospital. Laatou ni faa tona manava i te hale maki, ‘they operated on his stomach in the hospital’.


haa #2

(from PPN ^faa).

[cardinal number]  four.


haa #3

(from PPN ^fa’a).

[np]  a stalk of a plant, the branch of green coconut leaf {niu}, uncultivated swamp taro {kapulaka}, cultivated swamp taro {haahaa}, and sago {koko}.


hhaa (haahaa)

(from PPN ^faa).

[vi]  to be hoarse, of a voice. Tona leo ku hhaa,’his voice is hoarse’.


haeko #1

[no]  the blood of a man or animal. Te haeko ku lele i tona vae, ‘the blood is coming from his leg’.

syn: toto.


haeko #2

[q, emphatic qualifier following verb or noun qualifier]  very, excessively: taamaki haeko, ‘very many’; laoi haeko, ‘very good’; haimahi haeko,’very strong’.


haeko #3

[vq, sometimes as suffix]  following verbs, haeko has the meaning of bad, cruel, unkind: memehaeko, ‘to be cruel or unkind’; hakamemehaeko,’to criticize’; manava haeko, ‘to be unkind, constantly causing trouble’; sau haeko, ‘stormy weather’.

opp: laoi.



[vs]  to be unlucky in some endeavor, especially fishing or catching birds.  I te aho nei, maatou ni haekotia i te maatau, ‘today, we were unlucky at catching fish’.

opp: laoina, mooea, maalama, leia.


haele (saele)

1.[vi]  to walk, to go by walking.

sa: vai saele.

ca: hakahaele, <to make or help someone walk, to send a child on a errand>;

ps: saelea, haelea,

cp: hakahaelea,

pl: haaele,

rp: hahaele,

do: haele hua <to walk naked>, haele noa <to walk without covering the breasts>.

2.[vi]  to be transferred, of land.

3.[no]  a way of living, a set of characteristics; te naa te maatou haele,’that is our way of doing things’.

syn: hano#2, tupu hano.

4.[vi]  to swim, of fish. Na ika e haaele i te kiona laa, ‘the fish are swimming in that area’.



[vt]  to wipe after toileting.

ps: haelua.


haahaa #1

[nf]  swamp taro, (colocasia antigorum).  This variety of swamp taro is cultivated on Sikaiana in swamp gardens {taluano} which are fertilized with leaves {vao}. The gardens may be covered {uhi} several times as the plants mature; during the final mulching {hakataaute}, the mulch is wrapped around the bottom of the plant itself.  Names of varieties include: nainai, talo pulaka, haahaa kehu, tapalu.  Some other varieties on Sikaiana are named after the people who first brought them to Sikaiana: Anitolo, Hakameau, Kaihuli, Sipora, Teavaki.  A major staple of the Sikaiana diet.

cn: kapulaka,

sa: puapua, taluano, vasi, hakataaute, kano vai, keli#2, kano saa, kano malie, uli#2.


haahaa #2

(from PPN ^faafaa).

[vp]  to touch lightly, to feel; to check the position of a child during pregnancy by feeling the stomach of the mother.


haahaa kehu

[nf]  a taro variety {haahaa}.

ge: haahaa#1.


hahaele (haehaele, sasaele saesaele)

[vi]  to walk around continuously and aimlessly. A koe e hahaele noa i te alohi, ‘you walk around without purpose along the seashore (TS)’.  (Usually demeaning).

tr: hakahahaele <to walk with a baby in arms to put it to sleep>.



1.[n]  a woman.

ca: hakahahine,

pl: haahine,

do: tamaahine.

2.[na]  a daughter; tana hahine, ‘his/her genetic daughter’, tona hahine, ‘his/her female relative’.

3.[nq]  female: te kulii hahine, ‘the female dog’; te moa hahine, ‘the female chicken, hen’.

4.[na]  the queen in a game of cards.



[n, location]  outside. Na tama lliki ku tahhao i haho, ‘the children are playing outside’. Archaic).



1.[v followed by noun possessed]   to have, to be in possession. Te henua laa e haipopolani, ‘that island has a reef’; te stoa e haitupeka, ‘the store has tobacco (to sell)’; te vaka e he haikako, ‘the ship does not have any cargo’ te hahine laa e haitalatala, ‘that girl is talked about’ (in this last example, often derogatpry).

2.[prefix]  hai appears frequently with nouns with the meaning that the person is in the state described by the noun: haipohoulu, (has a head) ‘intelligent, clever’; haitama (has a child), ‘pregnant’; hailaoi (has good), ‘kind’; hai haeko (has bad), ‘cruel’; haiala (has alert), ‘to be good at self defense’.


hai #2

[prefix]  used before kinship terms to denote the relationship between the kinship categories (both genetic and classificatory): laaua taki haitamana, ‘they are in the relationship of father to child’. The kinship relationships are as follows: haimaatua, ‘parents with children’; haitamana, ‘father with child’,haitinana, ‘mother with child’; hai inoa, ‘child with brother of mother’; haitupuna, ‘grandchild with grandparent or guardian and adopted child’; haimokupuna, ‘grandparent with grandchild or guardian with adopted child’; haikave, ‘sister with brother’; haitaina, ‘same sex siblings: brother with brother, or sister with sister’.



1. [no]  a person’s deeds or actions.

2. [vi]  what a person is doing at a specific moment.  Heaa a koe ku hai?, ‘what are you doing?’.


hai #4

[vi, followed by deictics: laa, naa, nei_]  to have the notion, to have the belief, to think. A nau ni hai naa, koe ni hano ki Honiara, ‘I thought that you went to Honiara’; i Tulagi a nau ni hai naa, a koe ku lano, ‘while you were at Tulagi, I thought that you were lost and never coming back) (TS)’.


hai #5

[vt]  to make or repair the roof of a house. Maatou ka olo o hai na inaki, ‘we will go to put the layers of thatch on the roof’.


hai #6

(from Eng ‘high’).

[na]  the high card or ace in card game.


hai #7

[vt]  to have intercourse.

do: hiihai, hai aavana.



[vp, prefix followed by directional particles: atu, ake, mai]  to say or to tell; haimai, ‘to tell to me’; haiatu, ‘to tell to him, to tell when two specific people are involved’; haiake, ‘to tell a group’.


hai aavana

(from aavana ‘marry’).

[vi]  to have sexual intercourse (polite form).


hai ola

(from ola ‘to be alive’).

[vs]  to be lively, exciting.


hhai (hahai, ffai)

1.[vt]  to strip off bark, or rotten leaves and branches.  Idiom: kili ffai, lit. ‘stripped skin’; ‘to be fair or light skinned’.

2.[vt]  to strip and dry fish for preservation.

For all senses:

ps: haaia,

rp: haihai.



(from haeko ‘cruel’).

[vp]  to be cruel, to be unkind. Te tama laa e haihaeko ki te henua, ‘that person is unkind to the people of the island’.

opp: hailaoi,

sa: haimeahaeko,

ps: haihaekolia.



[nv]  a game.  Two teams are chosen. The game is played in muddy water and one side dives under water in an attempt to get past members of the other team to a goal.  The defending team tries to capture the opposing team by touching them.  In another version, the attacking side tries to reach the goal but the game is played under water; players are eliminated if they come up for air.



(from hhuti ‘to pull’).

[vp]  to talk about issues that one does not know about.



[vi]  to prepare food.



(from laoi ‘good’).

[vp]  to be kind, considerate, to give freely of food and possessions.

opp: haihaeko.

ps: hailaolia <to be treated kindly>.



(from mahi ‘strength’).

[vs]  to be powerful, physically strong, effective.



[vs] to be powerful, especially in supernatural matters and in curing. Te meteseni nei e haimailona, ‘this medicine is very powerful’; te hekau o te aliki e haimailona,’the ritual work of the chief is very powerful’.



[nv]  a game similar to hakatau solo.  Two people hold onto each other.  Another group tries to pull them apart.  The object is for the pair to hold onto each other as long as possible.



(form PPN ^faimanu ‘stingray’).

[nf]  a species of stingray.



(from haeko ‘cruel’).

[vp]  to be cruel, mean, unkind.

opp: haimealaoi.

ps: haimeahaekolia



(from laoi ‘good’).

[vp]  to be kind, generous, helpful, considerate.

ps: haimealaoilia.



[vs]  to be simple, easy to accomplish.

opp: hainataa.



[vs]  to be difficult, hard to accomplish.

opp: hainaohie.



[vs] to be bright, intelligent, to have a good head.



[vs]  to be pregnant. A Sina ku haitama i a Puna, ‘Sina is pregnant by Puna’.


haitama lokoniu

(from lokoniu ‘widow’).

[vs]  to be pregnant with an illegitimate child.



[no]  the measurements or size of something.



(from tupua ‘spirit’).

[nv]  a game with three players, in which one child pretends to be a demon {tupua} and another {tapoilima} defends a small child from the child acting the part of the demon.



(from umu ‘mound’).

[nv]  a game like ‘kick the can’.  Two sides are chosen, often boys against girls.  One side defends a mound of sand {umu}.  The other disperses and hides.  The attacking team tries to reach the pile of sand without being touched. The defending team tries to touch members of the attacking team.  Once touched, members of the attacking team may not run to the goal.  However, once touched the attackers will try to hold members of the defending team to prevent them from touching other attackers. The game is played at night.
See a picture of people playing haiumu.








(from PPN ^faka‑).

[causative prefix]  a commonly occurring prefix with many different functions.  Haka is a very productive prefix and can be added to many roots to change the case relationships of a verb or turn a noun into a verb.  In idiomatic usages, it can appear with many words not included in this vocabulary.

1.  before the category of verbs that are stative [vs], haka very often makes these verbs transitive: pakupaku, ‘dry’, hakapakupaku ‘to dry’; loloa, ‘long’, hakaloloa ‘lengthen’; ola, ‘alive’,  hakaola, ‘to bring alive’.

2.  with intransitive verbs [vi], haka has a similar function of introducing an agent and making the verb transitive:  moe ‘sleep’, hakamoe ‘to put to sleep’; lele, ‘fly’, hakalele, ‘to make fly’; tani ‘cry’, hakatani ‘to turn on a tape recorder’, ‘to make someone cry’.

3.  haka appears rarely with the verbs that are transitive [vt].  When it occurs, it is used most frequently as an imperative statement: amo, hakaamo, ‘carry’; ssau, hakassau, ‘lift’.

4.  before the ‘semi‑transitive’ verbs labelled [vp], haka has various usages that alter the meaning of the root: memehaeko, ‘unkind’, hakamemehaeko ‘to criticize’; lono, ‘to hear’, hakalono, ‘to believe, to obey’.

5.  haka can be placed in front of some nouns, often with the meaning to pretend to be or act in the state described by the noun:  tanata, ‘male’, hakatanata, ‘to show off in a way emphasizing masculinity’; tama maa, ‘white man’, hakatama maa, ‘to act like a white man’; ssili, ‘incapable’, hakassili, ‘to pretend to be incapable.

6.  haka can be prefixed to cardinal numbers to form ordinal numbers: hakalua, ‘second’; hakatolu, ‘third’; hakahaa, ‘fourth’; hakalima, ‘fifth’.



[vp]  to show cheek, to be rude, insolent. Ki te kau tamaahine te laa e hakaeleele mai, outou niho ku poppo, ‘for all the young women are rude; you have rotten teeth! (TS)’.

ps: hakaelenia.



[np]  the husk of a green or fresh coconut {niu}.

cn: pikopiko.



1. [vt] to lift up; to lift from below to place on top.

2. [vt]  to spoil a child through overindulgence.



(from haa ‘four’).

[ordinal number]  fourth.



(from hahine ‘woman’).

[vi]  to dress and act feminine in order to attract the attention of men, to show off in a feminine manner, to act coquettish. (Often demeaning).

sa: hakatanata.

pl: hakahaahine.



[vt]  to squeeze the intestines of a turtle in preparation for eating.



(from hhao ‘to pack into’).

1.[vt]  to dress someone, especially a child.

2.[vt]  to provide comfort, especially physical comfort for elderly people and children.



[vq]  face down; huli hakahaoli ‘to turn face down’.

opp: hakataliana.

ps: hulia hakahaoli.



[no]  the stomach organ of fish that feed on sand, such as mullet. Eaten.



[vs]  to be happy, joyful, thrilled, excited. This term is used frequently and is generally considered to be a very desirable condition. It is often associated with celebrations and festive events.

sa: hakapisapisa. One informant told me that hakapisapisa refers to extreme states of hakahiahia. It is not used as frequently.



(from kata ‘laugh’).

[vi]  to tell jokes and funny stories, to cause laughter.



(from hiti ‘change’).

1.[vt]  to change places, to change positions.

2.[vt]  to translate from one language to another.

For both senses:

rp: hakahitihiti.



[n]  a small wave.



1.[nv]  to give a gift to a spirit {aitu mate}(through his medium) to ensure the aid of the spirit in a request.  (PCR).

sa: tuutuuhuna.

2.[nv]  to make a compensation payment to a person who has been offended by offering a female relative for marriage.  (PCR, archaic).



1.[vp]  to make a bird come by showing a fish.

2.[vp]  to make a person behave in a desired manner by offering a gift.

For both senses:

syn: hakatala.

ps: hakaikoikolia.



[vp]  to ignore speech, to not listen.

syn: hakattuli.



[vp]  to joke, especially to someone’s face about his character or behavior; e iloa i te hakaako, ‘he knows how to joke’; e ssili i te haeko ‘he does not know how to joke’.

ps: hakaakona.



[vi]  to stoop from carrying a heavy load.


hakakkona (hakakokona)

[vt]  to threaten to attack or throw a spear.



(from laa ‘sun’).

[vt]  to place in the sun to dry.

ps: laaina <to be dried in the sun, to be sunburned>.



1. [vt]  to tack against the wind when sailing.

2. [vt]  to cut with an adze at an angle, as when cutting the inside of a canoe.

3.[vt]  see ala#2.



(from lani ‘rain cloud’).

[vs]  to be very cloudy, to be overcast, before a heavy rain.



[vp]  to blame many different people for some event. Aana talatala ni hakalalave ki a kimaatou,’he blamed us (among others)’.



(from lano ‘forget’ + mea ‘thing’).

[vt]  to make oneself forget something, as in forgetting someone else’s misdeeds. Hakalanomea na mea ni ssala i a nau i taku nohoana nei, ‘forget, the things that were wrong on account of me while I lived here(MS)’.



[vt]  to mix a liquid with another substance in order to soften it, to keep it from thickening.

ps: hakalanumia,

st: lanu.



(from laoi ‘good’).

1. [vt]  to bring together people on bad terms in order to make their relationship better.

2. [vp]  to apologize to, to ask the forgiveness of someone else.

3. [vq]  to do something in a correct, proper or inoffensive manner: unu hakalaoi, ‘drink alcohol but not excessively’; noho hakalaoi, ‘to sit quietly; to live in a friendly manner’; talatala hakalaoi, ‘to talk honestly and directly about a topic’.



1.[v]  to take out one’s anger on someone other than the person that one is really angry with, as when a parent may whip his children when he is actually mad at someone else.

2.[v]  to do something for a reason different from the stated reason.



[vt]  to slow a canoe by placing a paddle in the water.



(from lave ‘catch’).

1.[vt]  to make something catch or hook onto something else, as in trying to make the anchor of a boat catch onto a rock.

rp: hakallave.

2.[vt]  to punish physically.

sa: hakalaavea.


hakalave honu

[nv]  fishing for turtle with a snare.

ge: haanota.



1.[vt]  to physically *punish a person, especially as in punishing a child by a whipping.

2.[vi]  to pretend to be drunk, to pretend to be sick.

sa: laavea.


hakaleelesi (hakaleelehi)

[vp]  to lie to someone, to tell untrue stories: talatala hakaleelesi, ‘to talk untruthfully’; hiihai hakaleelesi, ‘to not really love someone, but merely want physical pleasure’.

sa: pio.

ps: lesia <[no lia suffix]  to be lied to>.



[nv]  a net fishing technique.  This is done in the evening in shallow places where sea grass {limu} grows.  Several men stand with hand held nets {kautoko} while others drive the fish into their nets.  Currently practiced with store bought nets.

wh: haanota kupena.


hakalli (hakalili)

[vt]  to cook food above a fire, to boil or fry in water.

st: takalli <to be boiled>,

pl: hakallilili.



(from? PPN ^faki).

1.[vt]  to report a story or secret, to reveal.

syn: kaitaua.

2.[vt]  to confess, to admit to a deed; to confess in church in preparation for Holy Communion.

sa: tala sala,

ps: hakaalia <to be told on, to be revealed>.



[vp]  to be revolted by something, to be disgusted by something, especially certain foods or filth.


hakallihu (hakalilihu)

(from llihu ‘sad’).

[vp]  to make someone weary or sad through one’s actions; to be a pest.

st: llihu.



(from lilo ‘cover’).

[vq]  to speak in a manner that hides one’s meaning by using metaphors.

syn: hulihulisala.



(from aloha ‘to pity, love’).

1.[vq, nq]  to do something in a manner that makes others pity you, pitiful; ttoka hakaaloha, look pitiful.

2.[vp]  to give very generously and excessively to others.  Na tama laa ni hakaaloha ki te henua i te kauatu noa ona mea, ‘that man gave very generously to the people of the island’.

For both senses:

ps: hakaalohatia.



(from ^lono ‘hear’).

[vt]  to announce, to make others aware of one’s plans or intentions; to ask, in the sense of letting the hearer know you want to use something of his.

ps: hakalaalona <[followed by i and source]  to have been told>.


hakalono (hakanno)

(from lono ‘to hear’).

1. [vp]  to listen, to obey.

2. [vp]  to *believe the veracity of a statement. Na tama e hakallono ki te akonaki o te misoni, ‘the people believe the teachings of the Christian Church’.

For both senses:

ps: hakalonolia,

pl: hakallono.



[vt]  to scoop up flying fish that have been stunned when fishing for flying fish {tae ssave}.



(from maa ‘white’).

1.[vt]  to make white.

2.[vt]  to cause the surface of saltwater to turn white with foam, of fish rising to the surface.

sa: inaho.


hakamma (hakamama)

[vi]  to open the mouth, as a child does when about to eat.


hakamailana (hakamainna)

1.[vt]  to remind someone of something.

2.[vt]  to remember something.


hakamakka (hakamakaka)

(from makka ‘firm’).

1.[vt]  to pull a material until it is taut or tight as in pulling a fishin line.

ps: hakamakkatia.

2.[vi] to strain in some activity; to flex muscles.

3.[vi]  to go ahead and do something even though one is afraid or incompetent.



(from malooloo ‘willing’).

1. [vt]  to make someone rest, as in resting a small child.

2. [vi]  to take a rest, to take a vacation, a holiday. Te iaa nei, taatou ka hakamalooloo i Sikaiana, ‘this year we are going to take a holiday at Sikaiana’.

sa: uiki hakamalooloo.



(from maamaa ‘light in weight’).

1. [vt]  to lift up.

2. [vt]  to lighten a load, to make something lighter by removing some weight.

3. [vi]  to diet in order to lose weight.



(from manani ‘depend upon’).

[v]  to spoil a child, to be *permissive or indulgent; to permit or encourage someone to come for resources or money.



(from? manoni ‘fragrant’)

[vp]  a ritual performed to ask a spirit {tupua} for his aid in fishing.  It was believed that different areas of the reef were inhabited by these spirits and the proper performance of a ritual would ensure a good catch.  (PCR).



[vi]  to disperse after an activity, the process of people one by one leaving a festivity to go home.  (Archaic).



(from mata ‘end’).

1.[vt]  to join together two different materials in order to provide extra length.

2.[vs]  to be ready to break, of a boil; te kahoa ku hakamata, ‘the boil is ready to break’.


hakammata (hakamamata)

(from mmata ‘examine’).

[vt]  to display, to show.

ps: hakamaatalia <for something to have been seen when it is still secret>.



(from PPN ^mata’u).

[v, vq, direction]  towards the right side in some activity as when fighting with clubs.  (Archaic).

opp: hakamaaui.



(from mate ‘dead’).

[vi]  to kill oneself, to commit suicide.


hakammate (hakamamate)

1.[vp]  to attempt, to try very hard at some project.

2.[vp]  to try to win the affections of someone in courtship.

3.[vi]  to fast from eating during the harvest time {huata}. (PCR).

4.[vi]  to fast from eating on Good Friday as part of the preparation for Easter. (CR).



1.[vp]  for the chief {aliki}, to pray by calling out the names of spirits {aitu}. PCR).

2.[vp]  to preach or give a sermon in the church.  (CR).



(from maatua ‘old’).

[vp]  to give orders, to act bossy.



see hakamaumau.


hakammau (hakamamau)

(from mmau ‘firm’).

1.[vt]  make firm, to make tight, as in building material.

2. [vp]  to depend upon, to rely upon.  Maatou i Sikaiana e hakammau ki te tanata, ‘we on Sikaiana depend upon the men’.



[v, vq, direction]  towards the left side in some activity as when fighting with clubs. (Archaic).

opp: hakamaatau.



[vp]  to pray to the spirits {tupua, aitu} of Sikaiana.  This prayer type probably involved calling out the names of several different spirits.  It was used in the ritual house {Hale Aitu} and when the pule went to pray to the spirits {tupua} of the reef after the teika lle.  (PCR).

ot: hakamau.



[vt]  to squint the face, as when looking into the sun.



[nv]  for a group to go from area to area {kaaina} singings ongs.  Previously associated with pre‑Christian rituals.  Today, very common during the Christian holidays on Sikaiana.
See a picture of hakamolimoli.

ot: hakammoli.



(from motu ‘snap’).

[vq]  to be spoken in a broken manner; talatala hakamotumotu, ‘to stutter’.



[vp]  to keep forgetting something; to intend to do something and then to forget it, remembering again when it is too late.

ps: hakamualeina <to be forgotten>.



1.[vi]  to be last, as in arrival at a place.

2.[vq, nq]  to be behind, after or last in both place or time. A Mautikitiki ni haanau hakamuli, ‘Mautikitiki was the last born’.



[v]  to be the very last, to be left behind in a race.


hakammuni (hakamumuni)

1.[vi]  to hide oneself. I te tuu paa, maatou ni hakammuni i loto hale poki munaia, ‘during the tuu paa, we hid inside the house, lest we be sworn at’.

2.[nv]  the game of hide and seek.



[nv]  a net fishing technique.  A group of men go to the edge of the reef at night with small nets {siaa kupena} and wait for the breakers to come.  One man stands at a passage {avaava} for the fish and blocks their exit as the others collect the fish with their nets.  Rarely practiced.

ge: haanota kupena.



(from anaana ‘help’).

1.[vt]  to be bothersome, as a small child who demands attention.

2.[vt]  to guard another in a sport such as netball or soccer.

For both senses:

ps: hakaanaanaia.



(from naopo ‘to be collected’).

1.[vt]  to gather together, to collect materials from different places, especially the collection of cloth for a brideprice payment {penupenu}. Te tupuna ni hakananaopo na leuleu ki te penupenu, ‘the guardian collected the clothing for the brideprice payment’.

2.[vt]  to try to bring together a family that has become divided through quarreling.

For both senses:

st: naopo,

cp: hakanaopotia.



(from naniu ‘large’).

1. [vt]  to enlarge, to make bigger.

2. [nq]  important, influential especially with respect to government officials; tama hakananiu, ‘the leader, the important man’.



(from napa ‘shame’).

1 [vp]  to praise to a person’s face and (for the Sikaiana)thereby embarrass him.

2.[vp]  to cause embarrassment.

For both senses:

ps: hakanapatia.



[vi]  to be shy, ashamed or embarrassed during courtship.



(from naatahi ‘same’).

[vt]  to make the same; to make level.



[v]  to vow, to promise to do something.



[nf]  a tree species(sea trumpet?),used for making house posts {tulutulu, pou}, the warp beam {atu} and apron beam {papa} of the back strap loom {mea tau}, and for fertilizing the swamp gardens {taluano}.



[vt]  to placate, to pacify, to make someone calm down from his anger, to make someone stop crying, especially with children.

ps: hakaaneanelia.



(from aniani ‘blow’)

1.[vi]  to swoop, glide, float in air, as a bird.

2.[vt]  to ceremonially dedicate an outrigger canoe {vaka hai ama} to the spirits in preparation for a long distance voyage {holau}.  (PCR).

syn: kake

sa: vaka hakaani.



(from noho ‘to sit, to dwell’).

1.[vt]  to make someone sit down.

pl: hakannoho.

2.[n]  a gift given by a deceased person’s family to the spouse of the deceased to show that no hostility is felt to the living spouse and he or she may marry again.(PCR).



[pln]  a house site at Sokelau where the Tongan invaders led by Vaeoma are reported to have stayed.



[pln]  a house {hale henua} associated with the Vaka Avusu descent group {hale akina}.



[na]  a fruit salad made from a local fruit, natu.



(from oso ‘startled’ + mouli ‘wits).

[vp]  to set on edge, to shock, to scare. E Lahia too mate ni hakaohomouli ki a kitaaua nei, ‘Lahia, your death has shocked us (TS)’.

syn: hakaoso.



[vt, vi]  to dress up, to decorate, especially to decorate the human body.



[vp]  to stir up trouble, to cause others to argue, to talk about matters that will make others present fight among themselves.


hakaoso (hakaoho)

(from oso ‘startled’).

[vp]  to startle as when a person grabs another by surprise; to shock, as in giving or causing shocking news.

syn: hakaohomouli.

ps: hakaosokia.



(from oti ‘finish’).

1.[vt]  to complete something, to finish a project.

2.[vt]  to dismiss someone from a job, to fire someone, to sack.

For both senses:

Ps: hakaotilia, hakaotikina,

st: oti.

3.[no]  the end of something, to be the last part of something; te nei te hakaoti o te raisi, ‘this is the last of the rice’.

4.[vq]  completely, entirely, thoroughly: pii hakaoti, ‘completely full’; laoi hakaoti, ‘thoroughly fine, excellent’.



[vp]  to dock at a wharf.

ps: hakapaepaelia.



[vi]  to physically mingle, to rub bodies against one another with a sexual connotation. I te anumana, te lautama ni hakapaepae hokkilaatou, ‘at the dance, the younger generation rubbed their bodies against each other’.

syn: hakavvisi.

ps: hakapaepaelia <to be rubbed against in the above manner>.



(from pale ‘to roll against’).

[vt]  to lean against, to place on something for support.


hakapaanaki (hakapiinaki)

1.[vt]  to join together, to collect, to add together.

2.[vi]  to be together, to come together. Te tulana e au taatou ki hakapaanaki muli, ‘the time will come when we will be together again (MS)’.

ps: hakapaanakina.



(from Eng ‘punish’).

[vt]  to punish.



[vp]  to be humble;  maatou i Sikaiana e hakapaapaalalo ki a laa tama, ‘we on Sikaiana are humble towards other people’.



[n]  a recipe for cooking taro by adding coconut milk and placing the taro in an earth oven {umu}, and then adding more coconut milk after cooking. From Peilau/Peelau, Ontong Java.


hakappele (hakapepele)

1.[vi]  to bend down, to stoop with the whole body as when carrying a heavy load.

2.[vi]  to perform a dance action that involves lowering one’s body from the knees.



(from kapi ‘to hold’).

1.[vt]  to possess, guard, hold, protect, keep. Te tupuna ni hakkapi tana tama poki sala, ‘the guardian protected his child lest he should make a mistake’.

ps: hakkapitia.

2.[vt]  to close up gaps, as in fitting together walling slats; to lock a door. Hakkapi te tootoka, ‘lock the door’.



(from pili ‘placed on top’).

1.[vt]  to put on top of something, as in putting clothing on top of a shelf.

2.[vp]  to talk back, to answer back, especially in an insolent manner.  Te tamaahine e hakapili ki tona tamana, ‘the young girl talks back to her father’.

3.[vt]  to compose a song that is in reply to the theme of an already composed song.

For all senses:

ps: hakapilia,

rp: hakapilipili.


hakappili (hakapipili)

(from ppili ‘to stick’).

[vt]  to make one thing adhere to another, as in gluing together two things.  Idiom: anu hakappili, ‘for a couple to dance with full body contact’.


hakapili te niu

(from niu ‘coconut’).

1.[nv]  to have a contest or competition.

sa: tili #1.

2.[nv]  a ceremony performed during the manea in which men raced around the island to a group of coconuts that were on the eastern side of the island and then took them into the ritual house {Hale Aitu}.



(from pio ‘untrue’).

[vt]  to discredit, to disparage, to say that another person’s narrative is untrue without knowing if it is true or not.


hakapouli te ata

[n, time]  the second stage in the dawn sequence after the first light of dawn {te ata imua}, the sky temporarily darkens.

wh: ata #1.



[vt]  to squeeze in order to force out a liquid, as one squeezes a boil to bring out the puss or a tube of toothpaste.



[vq]  to do in a manner that conserves; miti hakapulupulu, ‘to smoke slowly to conserve tobacco’.



1.[vp]  to praise another person’s actions and behavior.

2.[vp]  to boast. Te tama laa e hakapuupuu ki a ia muli, ‘he praises himself; he boasts’.

ps: hakapuupuulia.



(from saa ‘to appear’).

1.[vt]  to show something, especially something secret.

ps: hakasaalia.

2.[vi]  to appear after death as a ghost: tona anaana ni hakasaa, ‘his spirit appeared’.

sa: ausia, anaana #1.


hakasaa atu

[vp]  to visit someone. Maatou ni hakasaa atu ki na tama i te hale maki, ‘we visited the people in the hospital’.

ps: hakasaa atulia.



[vp]  to make a face at another by pushing out the lips. Considered a form of mild disrespect; mostly for young children.

ps: hakasaesaelia.



(from sanosano ‘suspect’).

[vq]  to speak in a manner causing suspicion, to speak or act in a manner using metaphors so that only certain people will understand one’s meaning.



(from sao ‘free’, ‘safe’).

1.[vt]  to make safe, to save someone’s life, to prevent harm from happening to someone through action or advice.

2.[vt]  to preserve a plant in order that it may grow bigger by fencing around it or forbidding its fruits from being harvested.

3.[vt]  to bring a boat across the reef without running aground on the reef or capsizing in the waves.

For all senses:

ps: hakasaolia, hakasaohia,

pl: hakassao,

rp: hakasaosao.



(from sao ‘safe’).

[vt]  to act as a go‑between in courtship, to arrange a meeting between a male and female for courtship.

ps: hakasaosaohia.



[no]  a special gift, talent or supernatural power.


hakasseke (hakaseseke)

1.[vi]  to drop out of, to fail to appear at an activity or event, to fall behind in a race. Tama laa ni hakasseke i te hekau o te hale tapu, ‘that person dropped out from work on the church’.

2.[vi]  to move down, as in going down from one step to another.



[vi]  to be lost while travelling, to lose one’s way when travelling. A nau ni hakasiilia i Honiara, ‘I lost my way in Honiara’.


hakasina #1

(from sina ‘fallen’).

1.[vi]  to lie down.

2.[vt]  to help someone lie down as when a baby or older person cannot move by himself.



[vs]  to blossom, of bananas {huti}.

ge: see.



[vp]  to talk in a group of people criticizing the behavior of someone who is not present when the criticism could also apply to someone present; or to direct one’s conversation to one person but meaning for it to be heard by another who is present.


hakasoa #1

[vt]  to mix two liquids together in order to dilute one liquid; hakasoa te kaleve, ‘to mix fermented coconut sap with freshly cut coconut sap’, a part of the fermentation process.

ps: hakasoalia.


hakasoa #2

(from soa ‘friend’).

[vt]  to make a ceremonial friendship {soa} between a small boy and a small girl.

sa: soa.



[nv]  a line fishing technique {maatau} which is done outside the reef in deep water of about 200 fathoms.  A heavy line is dropped to the bottom of the ocean. The fisherman hopes to catch a large grouper {ika hatu}. By tradition, if he properly follows all the fishing tabus, he will catch the fish and it will be accompanied by two sharks which will leave once the fish reaches the surface.

ge: maatau,

sa: uta lua.

pl: hakassolo.



[vq]  to speak or act in a slow manner.

opp: hakavave.



(from sopo ‘jump’).

1.[vt]  to jump over, to skip.

2.[vt]  to let out one’s emotions; to reveal. Te tama laa ni hakasopo tona hakateletele, ‘he let out his thoughts’.  Idiom: hakasopo te matani,’to *belch’.



(from sunu ‘smell’).

1.[vt]  to make another smell something, as in putting a bad smelling substance to someone’s nose.

2.[vt]  to make someone smell another’s genitals by holding a person down.  By tradition, a form of play formerly practiced during the puina between members of the opposite sexes. (PCR).

Sa: puina.



[vt]  to chase slowly and indirectly, as in chasing fish into a net.



(from ata ‘beauty’).

1.[vt, vi]  to decorate; to make oneself beautiful, to dress up.

rp: hakaataata.

2.[vi]  for the sun or moon to rise or set, making rays of light on the horizon.



(from tahi ‘one’).

[vq]  to do something in the same manner as another person; to dress the same, walk in the same step.


hakatakatootoo (takatootoo)

[vt]  to hang, as in hanging clothes on a line.

syn: hakatautau.


hakattaki (hakatataki)

(from ttaki ‘lead’).

1.[nv]  to go trolling; fishing with a line in tow.

ge: haanota.

2.[vt]  to walk pulling one foot behind, as when lame.


hakataku ali

[nf]  a species of shell fish that is not indigenous to Sikaiana, but some shells are seen drifting in the ocean.



(from tala ‘tame’).

1.[vt]  to make tame, as in taming a bird by feeding it food.

2.[vp]  to flatter or befriend in order to gain the future help or favor of someone; to court a girl until she is no longer shy.

syn: hakaikoiko.



(from talatala ‘talk’).

1.[vt]  to bring together a bride and groom for their arranged marriage {aavana puluna}.  (PCR).

2.[vt]  to teach a young person to talk; to make another person talk, as when an anthropologist asks questions.

3.[vt]  to make two people who are on bad terms sit down and talk over their problems.  Introduced by the Christian missionaries.  (CR).



[pln]  a former island located on the southern side of the reef that has washed away.

sa: Tepalena.



[vq]  to be turned inside out or face up. Huli hakataliana,’turn face up’; te kautanna o te kulii ku huli hakatauliana, ‘the ears of the dog are turned inside out’.

opp: hakahaoli.



[vt]  to pile up in one place, to heap up something, as in piling copra on top of a platform for drying.

ps: hakatalumia.



(from tama ‘child’).

[vp]  for a small child constantly to be trying to get attention, or constantly asking for a parent.



(from tanata ‘male’).

[vp]  to show off one’s masculinity, especially to attract women.  (Usually demeaning).

sa: hakahahine.

pl: hakataanata.


hakatapu #1

[vt]  to give a secret gift such as clothing or a necklace {henua} during courtship that symbolizes the fact that the couple are lovers {soa, hina}.

ps: hakatapulia.


Hakatapu #2

(from tapu ‘sacred’).

[vt]  to bless or to sanctify through Christian ritual, as at a marriage, baptism or blessing.  (CR).

ps: hakatapulia.



[vt]  to scan an area with eyes, to search for an object, to look around in a crowd.  (Archaic).



(from? hakataa ‘chase’).

[vp]  to initiate courtship, to make sexual advances.


hakatau #1

1.[vi]  to quarrel, to argue.

cn: hakatautau.

ps: hakataulia <to be quarreled about>.

2.[vi]  to compete, to have a contest: hakatau unu, ‘a contest to see who can drink the most’; hakatau alualu, ‘a contest to see who can finish a project first’.


hakatau #2

(from tau ‘in place’).

1.[vt]  to put together many different parts in a building project, as in putting together the different parts of a house, outrigger canoe or the tiles on a floor. Te Lai Manusia ni oti vave mae ko ni hakatau tona huaitino ki te ika, ‘Te Lai Manusia finished quickly, because he put together his body like a fish’.

2.[vt]  to knead, as in preparing flour for cooking.  (Archaic).

For both senses:

ps: hakataulia.


hakatau #3

(from tau ‘enough’).

[vt]  to make sufficient, suitable or proper.


hakatau solo

1. [vi]  a tug of war with a rope.

syn: hhuti te maea.

2. [vi]  to dispute an issue, to try to prevail against an opponent in a verbal argument (often with reference to land disputes).


hakatautau #1

[vt]  to *hang something up, as hanging clothes on a line.

syn: hakatakatootoo.

ps: hakatautaulia,

ot: hakatau.


hakatautau #2

[vp]  to discuss an issue from different points of view but without quarreling, to exchange views.

cn: hakatau #1.

ps: hakatautaulia.



(from taaute ‘decorated’).

1.[vt, vs]  to decorate with flowers and plants; to be decorated in such a manner.

2.[vt]  to mulch or fertilize by putting leaves on the swamp gardens {taluano}.

sa: taluano.

For both senses:

ps: hakataautea.



(from tele ‘run’).

1.[vt]  to make water flow by turning on a hose, to drain a sink or the inside of the outrigger canoe.  Some idioms: hakatele laakau, ‘count out the descent line’; hakateletele te peau, ‘to ride the waves in a canoe’; hakateletele na leli, ‘to shoot marbles’; hakatele kau, ‘to line up’.

2.[vt]  to chase directly, as in chasing pigs into a pigpen.

cn: hakataa.

ps: hakatelekia <to be blown by the winds or waves>.



1.[vp]  to think, consider, reason, keep in mind, believe.

do: hakateletele mahi <to respect, to think highly of someone>.

2.[no]  the thought, concept, reason, idea, meaning.


hakateletele vaka

[n]  a song form that was sung about, and as a ritual aid for, men who were doing long distance voyaging {holau}.(PCR).



[vs, vq]  for news or some event to occur very suddenly and unexpectedly. Too halona ni hakatete mai, ‘your trip was announced suddenly and unexpectedly (MS)’.



1.[vt, vs, vq]  to be lopsided or crooked, to be placed on its side; to move or be placed in such a manner. A nau e he ohia i a koe, mae ko too kanekane e piko hakatevahi, ‘I do not like you because your backside is lopsided and crooked (TS)’.

2.[vi]  to move to the side to be out of another’s way.



[vs]  to blossom, of arrowroot {pia} only.  (Archaic).

ge: see.



[vp]  to be undecided about something, to be in doubt, to not like something; in courtship, to be fickle.

syn: hilihili.

ps: hakatiiloa <to be undesired>.



[vp]  to rely upon, to trust in the sense of expecting support.


hakattina (hakatitina)

[vp]  for something to affect a few people but not others, as when a disease strikes one place in the island but not another or when there is a distribution of goods and only certain people receive them.



[vp]  to praise and admire the physical beauty of another person, especially as grandparents admire their grandchildren.



[vi] to shiver, as when cold.



(from too ‘excited’).

[vt]  to start a song, to make people excited about singing,to generate enthusiasm for a song.

ps: hakatoolia.



[vi] to wade in water, to walk in water.


hakatoo pakupaku

[nv]  a ceremony much like the puina, but performed only on the main island {Hale}; people did not go to the outer islands {Muli Akau} to compose songs.(PCR).

sa: puina.



[n]  the area of the floor of the ocean where it slopes down away from the reef into the open ocean.


hakatolo #1

[nf]  a fish species, goatfish.


hakatolo #2

[na]  an adze that is slightly curved on its cutting surface, but not as much as a niapu; made of either shell or steel.

sa: niapu, aalisi.



[na]  a wind cart used as a toy by children.  A leaf sail propelled the cart.



(from tonu ‘straight, correct’).

1.[vt]  to straighten in shape, as in straightening a canoe {manaui}, loom woven mat {vasa} or loom mat {mea tau}.

2.[vt]  to correct the social behavior of others.

3.[vt]  to judge and make a decision in a court case.

For all senses above:

rp: hakatonutonu,

ps: hakatonulia <(always in form: Agent ni hakatonulia e Agent Patient)>.

4.[vp]  to trust a person, to constantly seek the advice of one person. Te tamataane ni hakatonu tahi ki tona tamana, ‘the young man always sought the advice of his father’.



[vt]  to perform a procedure absolutely correctly, especially one involving different steps, as in a series of prayers to the spirits or a bureaucratic procedure with the government.

sa: kape#3, ssau, taku #2.


hakatuu #1

(from tuu ‘stand’).

1.[vt]  to make stand, to set up in a vertical position. Te laakau nei ku sina, e lavaka ki hakatuu ake muli?, ‘when this tree is fallen, is it possible to set it up again? (When a man dies can he be brought back to life?) (TS)’.

2.[vt]  to make, to establish, to set up: hakatuu te hale,’set up a house’; hakatuu te kaleve, ‘make some fermented coconut toddy’; hakatuu te tii, ‘to make some tea’; hakatuu te talatala, ‘to make a statement’.


hakatuu #2


[np] the supporting rods of the boom of the outrigger canoe {vaka hai ama}.  These are set vertically into the float {ama} and support the main rods {kiato} of the boom.

wh: vaka hai ama.


hakatuu kavaliki

[nv]  a net fishing {haanota kupena} technique. A man goes in the evening with a hand held net {kautoko} to a certain passage {i Temanni} and waits for the fish, kavaliki, to swim down.

ge: haanota kupena.



(from? atu ‘towards’).

1.[vt]  to measure out a distance.

2.[vt]  to aim at a target, or to make a plan.



(from? atu ‘towards’).

[vp]  to attempt or to try to do something, often with the connotation of being for the first time.

rt: atu #2,

ps: hakaatuatulia.



[vi]  to delay, to move slowly.



(from ttuli ‘deaf’).

[vp]  to ignore or not listen to speech; to disobey.

pl: hakattuli.



[vp]  to pray, to worship a deity.  (This term was used for certain prayer forms in the pre‑Christian ceremonies; it is also used today for all forms of Christian worship).



[vp]  to give a signal; in courtship, to secretly signal to one’s lover for a meeting.

ps: hakaatunalia.



[vp]  to be undecided about choosing a particular item, to be unable to make a choice.

ps: hakatunatunalia.


hakatupunna (hakatupulana)

[na]  a nursery or storage area for sprouted coconuts {kamatuu somo}.  The coconuts are lined in rows and kept until ready to be eaten.
See a picture of a hakatupunna.



[vi]  to diet, to abstain from eating food.



(from kaukau ‘bathe’).

[vt]  to give someone a bath, to throw water on someone.

ps: hakkaukaulia.


Hakkaukau Tapu

[vt]  to baptize in a church. (CR).



(from ulu ‘to enter’).

1.[vt]  to collect small fish in a pool or fish trap {tanaaika} with a net.

2.[vt]  to force something to enter an area.

For both senses:

ps: hakaulumia.



[vt]  to fold in or overlap many sections of material, as the roof mats of a house are placed in an overlapping manner to make them tight.



(from aauna ‘action’).

1.[vt]  to practice or teach a set of movements, especially in dancing.

2.[vt]  to gesture animatedly in conversation.

3.[vt]  to aim at a target, as in aiming at a bird with a gun.

4.[vt]  to make a gift or plan a course of action with some purpose in mind, such as giving a gift with the notion that the receiver will later help the giver: hakaauna sala, ‘to give a gift with the wrong purpose in mind’; hakaauna tonu, ‘to give a gift for the right reasons’.  Term is also used in land transfers: hakaauna tonu, ‘a proper land transfer’; hakaauna sala,’an improper land trans`fer’.

do: hakaaunauna.



1. [vi]  to discuss a matter animatedly, with gesturing.

2. [vi]  to consider an issue, to debate an issue.



1.[vt]  to roast on a stick over a flame, mostly for cooking birds and fish.

2.[vt]  to burn off the hair of a pig with lighted coconut leaves {lama} in preparation for eating.



[nv]  a net fishing technique {haanota kupena}.  A method used by women along the coral inside the reef with a curved stick {vvani} and hand held net {pito kupena}. The stick is put under the coral to feel for fish. When the fish jump they are caught by the net.  If they do not jump, the women will reach inside the coral to catch hold the fish with their hand.

ge: haanota kupena.



(from PPN ^faki).

[vt]  to pluck, to pick, or knock down a fruit with the hand from a tree.

ps: hakia.


hakkii #1 (hakikii)

[no]  the throat.


hakkii #2 (hakakii)

[vt]  to hold in emotions without revealing them, to endure a situation that affects emotions without revealing those emotions: hakkii too loto, ‘hold in your anger’;  hakkii too hiihai, ‘hold in your desire’.

ps: hakkiilia.



(from PPN ^kino ‘evil’).

1.[vs]  to be terrible, damaged, improper, rotten, broken, bad, in  poor condition. Te teipi ku hakkinokino,’the cassette player is broken’; na ika ku hakkinokino,’the fish are spoiled, not good for eating’.

2.[vp]  to be evil, wicked or cruel to someone. Te tama laa e hakkinokino ki aana tama, ‘he is wicked to his children’; te vahi hakkinokino, ‘the work of demons or the devil (in Christian teachings)’.  (Demeaning).

sa: Atua Hakkinokino.

ps: hakkinokinolia <to be the object of someone’s cruelty, evil or harm>.

3.[vq]  to do something in a improper manner, most often with the connotation of improper sexual behavior. Te tanata ni muna hakkinokino ki tona kave, ‘the man swore in a disgusting manner at his sister’.

For all senses:

syn: sakkino.



(from PPN ^fara).

[nf]  pandanus species, occasionally its fruit is eaten.



(from Eng ‘flour’).

[na]  flour, bread.



(from PPN ^fale).

[no]  a house, a building, most structures that are inhabited: hale kuki, ‘cook house’; hale lau, ‘leaf house’; hale kapa, ‘house with an iron roof’; hale simeti, ‘concrete house’; hale oti, ‘court house’; hale maalu, ‘toilet’; hale maki, ‘hospital’; hale kaukau, ‘bath house’; hale tapu, ‘church’. The parts of a house include: tulutulu, sanna, pale tootoka, pale apaapa, oka naniu, oka likiliki, kaukau#1, tauhhu, pou#1, tualua, hili#1, apaapa, pola, inaki, tuke.

sa: vaa‑, pao, vaihale, hale henua, Hale Aitu.


Hale #1

[psn]  a star constellation.


Hale #2

[pln]  the main island of Sikaiana as opposed to the rest of the atoll including the reef and the three smaller islands located on the western side of the atoll {Muli Akau}. A laa tama ni olo ki te puina i Muli Akau ia, ka maatou ni nnoho i Hale, ‘the others went to the puina on the small islands, but we stayed on the main island’.


Hale Aitu

[pln]  the central ritual house of the island.  Most of the major rituals involving the island as a whole were performed there, including certain ceremonies in the teika lle, and the manea. The house is no longer standing (PCR).

sa: hale henua, tino mate.


hale akina

[no]  a named patrilineal descent group, termed in this book as a clan.  The members of a hale akina can trace patrilineal descent to a founding ancestor, many of whom are believed to be from other Polynesian islands.  However, these men married into already existing descent groups and then kept those names. Traditionally, each hale akina was associated with one or two clan houses {hale henua}. In most cases, the hale akina is not a land holding group. Today, the main function of the hale akina is to cooperate in marriage payments {penupenu}.  The names of the current hale akina are: Saakava, Saalupe, Saatelua(two clans have this name), Saatui, Saapei and Vaka Avusu.

sa: hale henua, kano hale, tanata vale, hetoaliki, mataaliki.


hale henua


[no]  the ritual houses associated with each clan {hale akina}, termed here clan houses. The houses were all located on the side of the main island facing the lagoon {alohi}, and had a main spirit {aitu} as patron. Certain rituals were performed in these houses, including the kunaaika, vulisana and preparation for the manea.  None of these houses is currently standing although their locations are named and remembered.

sa: hale akina, Hale Aitu, vai hale, ahana.


hale mala

[nf]  fan coral.


Hale Tapu

(from tapu ‘sacred’).

[pln]  a Christian church building.


Hale Uhi

[pln]  the name of one of the clan houses {hale henua} located in Sokelau and associated with the Saatui clan.  The founding spirit was Tehui Luaniua, one of the founder heroes of Sikaiana.

sa: hale henua, hale akina.


halle (halele)

[vs]  to be leaning at an angle as a tall coconut tree that has not grown straight.



[na]  an European style plate.



[na]  a small basket made of lead for carrying food.


haalo #1

[vp]  to peep at someone, to crane the neck to look.

rp: hahaalo.


haalo #2

[np]  two rods on the outrigger canoe {vaka hai ama} that run perpendicular to the platform rods {kiato} of the boom on the

side of the float {ama}.

wh: vaka hai ama.



[no]  a trip or journey away from Sikaiana or Solomon Islands by any conveyance.

cn: holau.


hhana (ffana, hahana)

1.[vt]  to separate, to pull out, as in pulling out line from a tangled fishing line.  Idioms: ffana talatala, ‘to sort out some speech’; ffana too kalemata, ‘to choose a true love in courtship’.

2.[vt]  to take a child away from his parents in adoption {tama too}. Maatou ni hhana te tama likiliki ma tona tinana, ‘we took the child from his mother’.

For both senses:

st: mahana,

ps: hanaalia,

rp: hanahana.



(from hhana ‘pull out’).

1. [rp. of hhana]  see hhana.

2. [vt]  to castrate a pig.



(from PPN ^fana’i).

1.[vt]  to feed; haanai na piki,’feed the pigs’; haanai te tama likiliki, ‘feed the child’.

2.[vt]  to provide goods to another person, especially during the distribution of marriage payments {penupenu}.

For both senses:

ps: haanaia <[followed by far cause marker i]  to be fed by, to receive goods from>.

sa: kai.



[counting term]  the number eight, when counting by twos.



(from PPN ^faanau).

1.[vt]  to bear a child, to give birth. A nau ni haanau taku tama i te 1950, ‘I gave birth to my child in 1950’.

2.[vs]  to be born. A nau ni haanau i te 1950, ‘I was born in 1950’.

tr: hakahaanau <to assist in giving birth, to act as a midwife>.

sa: ssiki.

3.[no]  siblings of the same sex, including real and classificatory siblings; same generation, same sex, lineal and collateral relatives.

syn: taina.

do: taki haanau <to be in the above relationship>.


hano #1

[nf]  a plant species, (Guettarda speriosa?).  This is used in decoration for its fragrance.


hano #2

(from PPN ^fano).

1.[vi]  to go, for singular subjects: hanaiho, ‘to go down’; hanaake, ‘to go away’; hanaatu, ‘to go towards another’.

sa: au #1.

pl: olo.

2.[no]  a person’s character or behavior: te hano o te tanata, ‘the way males behave’; te hano o te tama; ‘the way or character of a person’.

syn: tuputupu, haele, tupu hano.

3.[vi]  to menstruate:  ku hano oona manava, ‘her belly is menstruating’. (Restricted).


hano #3

[conjunction, conditional]  if. Hano pe a koe e ttae ki Honiara, sui mai maku he teipi; ‘if you reach Honiara, buy me a cassette recorder’.


hhano #1 (hahano, ffano)

(from PPN ^fafanu).

[vt]  to wake up a person from sleeping.

ps: haalona.


hhano #2 (hahano, ffano)

[vt]  to wash hands, especially to wash out the smell of fish {manu kuku} after eating.


hhano #3 (ffano)

[vs]  to be stretched out, as in stretched rubber.

tr: hakahhano <to stretch>.



(from PPN ^faangota).

[vi]  to fish; generic term for all kinds of fishing, including: with line {maatau}, net {haanota kupena}, rod {sseu, ane}, collecting shell fish {okoalli, ssikunu}, fish traps {tanaaika}, snaring flying fish {tae ssave}, fishing with a torch {llama}, trolling {hakattaki}, a snare {sele paala}, diving {sepu ika}, driving fish on top of shallow places {ssuki}, catching fish as they eat crab eggs {sakaki}, snaring turtle {hakalave honu}, and any other fishing method at sea.

sa: maatau, haanota kupena, sseu, tautai.


haanota kupena

[nv]  to go fishing with a net. Types of net fishing include: tuu avaava, hakaana, tanotano, paanoa, taatulana, haka`lle`tua, paakuahali, hakavoika, tuu kavaliki, tuusao, kalu, tai te tua, taka hatu, hakatele ika.  Four types of nets were used: tauto, kautoko, pito kupena, siaa kupena.

ge: haanota,

sa: kupena.


hhao #1 (hahao, ffao)

(from PPN ^fafa’o).

1.[vt]  to pack into, to put inside an enclosed area.

2.[vt]  to wear clothes, to put on clothes.

For both senses:

ca: hakahaohao,

ps: haaona,

rp: haohao.


hhao #2 (hahao, ffao)

[vi]  to turn in walking, to divert direction, especially through brush or an enclosed area. Maatou ni hhao ki uta, ‘we turned inland’.

cn: tipa.



[vs]  to be hollowed out, to have a space inside, as a bowl has a space inside.

ca: hakahaoli.



(from hhao ‘wear’ + lima ‘arm’).

[no]  a western style shirt.

cn: puipui.



[np]  a type of verse in composed songs {mako hatu}.  The haopuku occurs before the puku and is repeated throughout the song.

wh: mako hatu.



(from hhao ‘wear’ + vae ‘leg’).

\[no]  western style pants: haovae potopoto, ‘short pants’; haovae loloa, ‘long pants’.


hata #1

(PPN ^fata).

[np]  a fence, platform, shelf: hata piki; ‘a pig fence’; hata seu manu, ‘a platform to stand on when catching birds’.


hata #2

[no]  a bracelet or armband.


hatahata #1

(from PPN ^fatafata).

[no]  the chest, of animal and man.


hatahata #2

[vs]  to be elevated, to be propped up, to have a space underneath, as firewood over a fire; to be loose fitting at a joint.


hatahata #3

[np]  the central mesh of a bird net {seu manu} that hangs down from the rim {kaullie} of the net, above the bottom of the mesh {puto}.

wh: seu manu.


hati na lima

[no]  the wrist of the hand.


hati na peau

1.[n]  the distance from an island where one can still see the waves breaking on the reef.

sa: tahanahana, kunaatua, laulalo, lilo.

2.[n] the breaking of the waves on the reef; the place where waves break on the reef.


hati pukupuku

[vi]  to crouch over, to stoop down, as when trying to hide from someone.


hhati (hahati, ffati)

(from PPN ^fati).

1.[vt, vs]  to break something, especially something hard such as metal, glass or hard wood; to be broken, to be split.

pl: hatihati,

ps: hatia,

do: hatihati <to be *wrinkled>.

2.[vs]  of a mat {vasa} that does not lie flat on the ground but points upwards in the shape of a ‘V’; of a canoe {manaui} that has a curve that is too sharp in its body. Both are considered to be improperly made.

3.[np]  a type of verse in composed songs {mako hatu} that occurs after the akoako and before the haopuku.

wh: mako hatu.


hatu #1

(PPN ^fatu).

1.[np]  a seed, pip or pit of a fruit.

2.[na]  a stone, rock or pebble, a stone weight for a fishing line, the flint of a cigarette lighter.


hatu #2

[vt]  to compose a song.

sa: mako hatu.

ps: hatua, hatulia.


hatu #3

(from PPN ^fatu ‘to weave’).

[vt]  to start weaving a pandanus mat {vasa}.(After the beginning, llana is the term for weaving).

sa: llana #1, vasa.

ps: hatua, hatulia.


hatu kiva

[nf]  a type of coral that can be used for sharpening tools.


hatu maka

[nf]  the pearl in a giant clam shell.  Can be worn as a neck ornament.


hatu manava

1.[no]  the fat found near the kidneys of a pig.

2.[no]  a true love, a person or object very much desired.


hatu pelu

[nf]  a type of coral that is yellow and causes minor itching when touched.


hatu talatala

[n]  a stone used for sharpening tools.


hatu taula

[np]  the anchor of a canoe or boat.



[nf]  sea urchin species.



[nf]  a type of mature coconut {kamatuu somo} without a sprout {muka} that is very sweet to eat.

sa: kamatuu.



[vt]  to speak slowly as when trying to teach the words of a song or pronouncing a word slowly.  (Archaic).


hau #1

(from PPN ^fau).

[nf]  a plant species (sea coast mallow, Hibiscus tiliaceus?) that has many uses including: the fibre for loom mat weaving {mea tau}, grass skirts {lili}, temporary rope and string, and the poles for the rafters {oka} of houses.


hau #2

[no]  a flower garland or wreath worn around the head or neck as

decoration.  Tau too hau, ‘wear your flower garland’. Types of hau include: hau pasai, a sweet smelling garland made from the tumeric plant; hau kalea, a necklace made from a cone shell; hau kolokolo, a necklace made of buttons; hau tokotoko, a garland made from the young buds of the hano plant.


hau #3

(from PPN ^fa’u).

1.[vt]  to lash or tie one thing to another.

ps: vausia,

do: vausana.

2.[no]  the specific way for tying together a bonito hook {paa}.  Every man had a different way for tying the hook which was kept secret from other people.  The method of tying was believed to affect his chances of a catch.

sa: paa #1.


hau #4

[vi]  for a spirit {aitu mate} to possess his medium {vaka}. Te aitu mate ni hau i tona vaka, ‘the spirit entered his medium’.  (PCR).

sa: aitu mate, vaka.


hau mokoaa

[na]  a type of land transfer in which land is given in perpetuity by the chief {aliki} to someone for his aid or help.  Often associated with a gift made to the tautuku after the arrival of a fish in the teika lle. (PCR)

cn: kai taka, kai taa, tuu #4.


hau ole

[np]  a method for lashing and binding.

sa: paa #1.


hau tookoi

[no]  the ceremonial headdress worn by the woman {sapai ulu} who assisted the chief on ceremonial occasions. A strip of dried pandanus {kie} was wrapped around the temples then folded under at the back of the head and brought over the top of the head to the front of the forehead. (PCR)

sa: sapai ulu.



[np]  the middle tie in a bonito hook {paa}.

wh: paa #1.


he #1

[indefinite article]  any: he tama, ‘any man’; he aho, ‘any day’; he tulana, ‘any time’.

pl: ni <some>.


he #2 (hee)

[negative marker following tense‑aspect marker]  not. Te tama laa e he hano,’that person is not going’; te tama laa e hano, ‘that person is going’.


he tuai

[conjunction]  not long after, shortly after. Te vaka ni ttae ki Sikaiana, ka he tuai, kaamata koia te unu, ‘the ship reached Sikaiana, and not long after, the drinking started’.


e hee mata

[vq, preceding verb]  to not really perform the action or be in the state described by the verb: hee mata noho, ‘stay for just a short time’; hee mata ssiu,’not very wet’.


hea (he)

(from  PPN ^fea).

[interrogative pronoun] where? A koe ni kalemata ki hea?  Koe ni kalemata ki lokoniu, ‘where were you looking? You were looking at old widows (TS)’.


heaa (hea)

[interrogative pronoun]  what?  Replaces nouns in a question. Heaa te male o te mako laa?, ‘what is the name of that song?’; heaa tau?, ‘what do you want?’.


heaa ko

see aa ko.


heai (seai)

1.[declarative statement]  no.

opp: oo.

2.[vs]  to be no, nothing. He ohialia (ki) na mea katoa, na ola o te tama ku oti, na mea naa ku heai, ‘do not desire everything, when the life of a man is over, those things no longer exist (MS)’. E he lavaka ki heai, lit., ‘it is not possible to be no; it cannot be any other way’.


heatu (featu)

[vp]  to fight physically.

ps: heatulia <to be fought about>.



[vs]  to be sick.

ca: hakaheia <to pretend to be sick; to make people sick, as a person who brings a contagious disease to the island>.



1.[vi]  to work, to be employed, to be involved with a project.

ps: hekaulia <to be made, of the measurements and plans for a house>,

cp: hakahekaulia <to be watched for a purpose, to be the victim of love magic>,

pl: hekkau.

2.[no]  work, employment.



[nf]  a sponge like sea plant that is eaten.



[tense‑aspect marker, negative progressive]  not yet.  See Introduction.


heki ai

[declarative statement] not yet.



[vi]  to make a squeeking sound as the lashings of an outrigger canoe.


helavei (hilavei)

[vi]  to meet, encounter, to have an interaction with. Tapatai ao nei, maaua ma Puna ni helavei i te ala, ‘this morning, I met Puna in the street’.

ca: hakahelavei <to arrange so that two people will meet>.



(from Eng ^flag).

[np]  flag, as the flag of a country; te vaka e isi tona heliki, ‘the boat has its flag’.



[np]  the rod running from the bow of the boat to the top of the mast {kautuu} in an outrigger canoe {vaka hai ama}.

wh: vaka hai ama.


hhelo (hehelo, ffelo)

(from PPN ^felo).

[vs]  yellow, the color.


henua #1

(from PPN ^fanua).

1.[no]  an island, in the sense of an entire reef or collection of associated islands. Sikaiana te naa te henua a nau ni tupumai ai, ‘Sikaiana, that is the island where I was born (MS)’.

cn: motu#1.

2.[no]  a country, including the industrial countries of the world.  Tona, te henua; Hiti, te henua; Vanuatu, te henua; Amelika hoki, te henua, ‘Tonga is a country, Fiji is a country,Vanuatu is a country, America also is a country’.  Idiom:henua naniu, lit.: ‘a large country; an industrialized nation’.


henua #2

[no]  a necklace, or neck band. Henua laulu, a necklace made from human hair, especially from a close relative or lover; henua ahina, a hair necklace worn under the arm; henua uua, a hair necklace worn around the neck.



[nf]  coral stone.



[vi]  to participate in the activities of one age group, to grow up together. Ni heono mai o taa(ua) lautama i a kitaaua e naatahi, ‘our age group grew up together, we are both the same age (TS)’; ni heono ka too lautama i muli vaka, ‘your age group grew up in the back of the canoe (TS)’. (Archaic).



[vi]  to collide into someone, to bump into someone. Maaua ni hetaatoi ma te tama laa, ‘I bumped into that person’.



[nf]  a plant species used for decoration.

sa: tae pau.


heto aliki

[n]  the collective name for the descent groups descended from the original founder heroes of Sikaiana, Tehui Atahu and Tehui Luaniua.  These groups have the right to succeed to the office of chief {aliki} and include: Vaka Avusu, Saalupe and Saatui.  Some speakers use this term only for the descendants of Tehui Atahu: Saalupe and Vaka Avusu.

cn: mataaliki, tanta vale.


hetu (fetu)

[vt]  to fold over, as in folding clothes or paper.

rp: hetuhetu,

ps: heetua.



(from PPN ^hetu’u).

1.[nf]  generic term for star; na hetuu o te lani,’the stars of the sky’.

2.[nf]  a species of starfish.


Hetuu Matappula (Hetuu Matapupula)

[psn]  a star, Venus.


Hetuu Taka

1.[psn] a star, (?Mars ?Mercury. The star moves a lot.)

2.[n]  a person who is constantly going from place to place, never staying in one place too long; a drifter, a wanderer.  (Mostly demeaning).



[np]  the folded edge of a pandanus sleeping mat {vasa}.


Hetuna (Fetuna)

[psn]  the people who, by legend, inhabited Sikaiana upon the arrival of Tehui Atahu.



[vi]  to have a private and personal talk, especially during courtship. Ku heai mo taaua he kiona ki taaua ki pakatea mua, hakatahi i he talatala, ki taaua ki heui i te hiahia ma te hiihai, ‘there is no deserted place for us to meet, set our plans, and for us to talk privately about happiness and love (TS)’.  (Archaic).



[vi]   to move towards a point in time, to move close to in time.  Te tulana ku heukuuku ki maalama, ‘it is getting close to dawn’.


hii‑ (hi‑)

(from PPN ^fia).

[desiderative prefix before verb]  to want, to desire the state or action described by the following verb: hiihano,’wish to go’; hiinoho, ‘wish to stay’; hiitalatala, ‘wish to discuss’; hiikata, ‘want to laugh’.

do: hiikai, hiimea, hiihai, hakahiikata, hiiunu, hiimoe.



(from PPN ^fiha).

[interrogative pronoun]  how many?  How much? Ee hia tona sui?, ‘how much does it cost?’; ee hia i te tama?, ‘how many people’; ttae ki te hia?, ‘what time is it?’.



[vp]  to love, desire, mostly with a sexual meaning.

ps: hiihailia <to be loved, sexually>.



(from kai ‘eat’).

[vp]  to be hungry, to want to eat, to be hungry for a certain food.   A nau e hiikai haeko i te ika mata, ‘I very much want to eat raw fish’.

ps: hiikailia <of a food, to be desired for eating>.

hili #1

[np]  the wooden slats of house walling made from the root {laho} of pandanus {paku}.

sa: laho.


hili #2

(from PPN ^fili).

[vp]  to select, to choose the best out of several choices.

ps: hilia <to be chosen>,

do: hilihili.


hhili (hihili, ffili)

(from PPN ^firi).

[vt]  to braid or wind together strands of material to make rope.  There are two styles of braiding: hhili kutu, ‘tight braiding’; hhili hakahaele, ‘loose braiding’.  Hhili is to braid three different strands of material into one rope; tupe is to braid four strands together.

sa: tupe#1, hilo#1.



[vp]  to reject, to be uncertain about deciding which of several objects to choose because none of them seems appealing, to reject by not deciding; in courtship, to be fickle, to not desire one’s suitors.  Te tamaahine e hilihili ki te kau tama mmaa, ‘the young woman does not desire white men’; kai hilihili, ‘to be fussy about food’.

ps: hilihilia, hilihililia.


hilo #1

(from PPN ^filo).

[vt]  to make string by rubbing fibre against one’s leg until a strand of string is made.(The traditional method for making string).

sa: hhili, tupe#1.

ps: hiloa.


hilo #2

1.[vt]  to mix different substances. Te lekona e poi laoiake, hano pe a koe e hilo ki te tupeka, ‘home grown tobacco is better if you mix it with twist tobacco’.

2.[vi]  to be genetically mixed, of people from different places; admixture.  Te haeko o Sikaiana ku hilo ma te kau henua o te malaamana nei, ‘the blood of Sikaiana is mixed with blood from everywhere in the world.’

For both senses:

ps: vilosia.



(from mea ‘do’).

[vi] to want to have sexual intercourse.  (Restricted).



(from moe ‘sleep’)

[vi] to be sleepy, to want to sleep.



[no]  a lover, sweet heart, adulterer.  Today this is used only for adulterous affairs; premarital sexual relationships are termed soa (‘friend’). (Traditionally, when most marriages were arranged {aavana puluna}, any non‑marital sexual partner was given this term. It was frequent before the arrival of Christian missionaries in 1929.)

sa: kau, saka, aavana puluna, tama kai, soa.



[n, time]  yesterday.

ge: aho#1.


Hine Taulani

[psn]  the name for one of the female spirits {aitu} of Sikaiana, who is commonly associated with long distance sailing {holau}.  It was believed that Hine Taulani could make a person invisible to his enemies.  Some claim brought from ‘Samoa’ by a man named Levao.  (PCR).


hiti #1

1.[vt]  to *shoot with a gun or rifle. Te kau tamataane e hiti lupe i Talappa, ‘the young men shoot pigeons at Talapa’.

2.[no]  a gun or rifle.

3.[vt]  to insult or criticize, most often in song composition. Na mako o te kau tanata ni hiti te kau hahine, ‘the songs of the men criticized the women’ (figurative).

For senses 1 and 3:

ps: hitia, hitilia.


hiti #2

1.[vi]  for the wind to change direction or source.  Te matani ku hiti ki te laki, ‘the wind changed direction to the west’.

2.[vs]  to be finished or over, usually in reference to some illness or emotional state: tona maki ku hiti, ‘his sickness is over’; tona lihutia ku hiti, ‘his sadness is finished’; tona hiihai ku hiti, ‘his love is finished.’

3.[vt]  to reach a certain stage of life. A Teunava ni hiti hakalaoi tona tamahine, ‘Teunava matured into young womanhood’.  Idiom: hitimai ki te malama, to change one’s state of being, as when referring to a time when someone was not yet born, or to Tehui Atahu who changed from a man into a spirit. (This usage is archaic.)

4.[vs]  to be in labor for childbirth. Te hahine ku hiti, ku taupili ki haanau, ‘she is going into labor, she is about to bear her child’.

5.[vs]  to change, to become different. A Puna ni hiti hakaoti ki te laa vahi i tona vvale, ‘Puna went completely to the other side in his insanity’.

6.[vi]  to change places: te vaka ni hiti ki muli, ‘the canoe fell behind’.

For senses #5, #6:

ca: hakahiti.


hiti uka

[vi]  to hold one’s body tense so that the veins stick out, as some small children do when they are straining their muscles.


hhiti #1 (ffiti, hihiti)

[vt]  to make sparks, as in the sparks of a flint lighter or the tail of a shooting star. Te tanaloa ni hhiti ona malamala, ‘the shooting star made sparks’.

do: ahi hhiti.


hhiti #2 (ffiti, hihiti)

[vt]  to snap as in snapping fingers, to flick as in flicking the top of a cigarette lighter, to shoot as in shooting marbles.


hhiti #3 (hihiti)

[vi]  to be descended from, to originate from. Na aliki o Sikaiana ni hhiti mai i a Tehui Atahu ma Tehui Luaniua, ‘the chiefs of Sikaiana descended from Tehui Atahu and Tehui Luaniua’.



[vt]  to recall, remember, think back. A nau e hitiake tahi na kiona taaua kona hai umu ai, ‘I will always remember the places where we were playing hai umu (MS)’.

ps: hitiakelia.



[pln]  a place beyond the eastern side of the island where it was believed that the spirits {aitu mate} of dead people went. (PCR)



[vt]  to tap or knock lightly, as in tapping coconuts to see if they are ripe or knocking on a door.



(from PPN ^fitu).

[cardinal number] seven.



[nf]  a kind of coral that can be used for sharpening axes.

sa: puna kehu.



[vi]  to be thirsty, to want to drink, to want to drink some special beverage.



[nf]  a fish species, ?sardine.


hhoo (hohoo, ffoo)

[vt]  to split in half: hhoo tuu lua, ‘cut a coconut in half along its width’; hhoo tonu, ‘cut a coconut in half from top to bottom’.

pl: hoohoo,

ps: hoohoolia <to be split>.



(from PPN ^foaki).

1.[vt]  to pass over, as when a person is sitting and passes a coconut to the person who is husking.

2.[vt]  to give.

For both senses:

rp: hoohooaki.



(from PPN ^foe).

[na]  the paddle of a canoe.


hoe alo

(from alo ‘paddle’).

[np]  the propellor of a steamship.


hoe lulu

(from lulu ‘steer’).

[np]  the rudder of a steamship.



(from PPN ^foki).

[nq, vq] also.  A Sina ni hano hoki, ‘Sina also went’.



[nq followed by personal pronoun, kk forms probably produced by deletion of o when prefixed to personal pronoun beginning with k]  *alone, by *self.  Laatou ni olo hokkilaatou, ‘they went by themselves’; koe e hano hokkoe, ‘you will go by yourself’; hokkimaatou, ‘by ourselves’; hokkoia, ‘by himself’; hokko nau, ‘by myself’; hokkoutou, ‘by yourselves’; hokkilaatou, ‘by themselves’; hokkitaatou, ‘by ourselves’.


hoko tahi (hoko tasi)

(from tahi ‘one’).

[nq] one, of a quantity (when reporting numbers); te tama hoko tahi, ‘one person’.


hhola (hohola, ffola)

(from PPN ^fola).

1.[vt]  to spread out, to unfold, to lay out.

2.[vt]  to find out whether a speech or narrative is true or not.  A nau ni hhola te talatala,’I found out the truth about the narrative’.

Derivatives for both senses of hhola:

ps: volasia,

st: maahola.



(from PPN ^folau).

[no]  a voyage over open sea in an outrigger canoe to another island.

sa: ooana, tuuhoe, hakateletele vaka, vaka hakaani, vaka hai ama.



(from PPN ^folo).

[vt]  to swallow.

ps: holomia,

ca: hakaholo <to make a child swallow medicine>,

cp: hakaholomia.



[np]  the washstrake of an outrigger canoe {vaka hai ama}.

wh: vaka hai ama.


honu #1

(from PPN ^fonu).

1.[nf]  generic term for turtle.  Types of turtles include: tua sivvalu, masana.

ge: ika.

2.[n]  someone with red eyes like a turtle, often from drinking or being tired.

3.[n]  a ritual performed by men when a turtle was found at sea. The turtle was brought ashore and hit with a special stick {taahua} to kill it.  Women were forbidden from attending the ceremony.  (PCR).


honu #2

[vs] to be juicy, full of liquid as a fruit.


hhonu(hohonu, ffonu)

(from PPN ^fofonu).

[vs]  to be full of water, to be high tide: tai hhonu, ‘high tide’.

ps: honulia <to be caught at sea during high tide>.



[n]  a fish trap, but with only two walls {kaupaa} leading into the trap.

sa: tanaaika.


hhota (hohota, ffota)

1.[np]  the wake on the surface of water, of a ship or a large fish.

2.[vi]  to make a wake on the surface of water. Te taholaa e hhota mai, ‘the whale is making a large wake’.

cn: misamisa.



(from Eng ‘hotel’).

[n]  a bar, restaurant or hotel.



[np]  the barb of a stingray.



[no]  the vaginal canal.  (Restricted).


hou (fou)

(from PPN ^fo’ou).

[vs]  to be new, newly made or newly purchased.

ca: hakahouhou <to wear new clothes, to dress up>.


huu #1

[vt]  to hide something.

ps: huuna, huulia.


huu #2 (fuu)

[exclamation]  an exclamation of surprise.


huu kete

[nv]  a children’s game.  A child hides under a basket and others try to guess his name.  The child is first asked to scratch {lakulaku} the basket with its hand and then whistle {vinivini} to help the players identify him/her.


\e hua #1

1.[no]  the *testicles of a man or animal.  (Restricted).

The positions of the testicles in a pig: te hua e sopo, ‘the testicle has appeared’; te hua e lilo, ‘the testicle has not appeared’.

do: haele hua <walk naked>.

2.[np]  the center or ball of a clam.


hua #2

(from PPN ^fua).

[vs]  to begin to bear fruit for the first time, of coconut {niu} and sago {koko}.

pl: hhua.


hua moa

[np]  a chicken egg.  (Archaic).

syn: tama moa.


hua sola

[n]  a tree of a fruit‑bearing species that does not bear fruit.



[nf]  a fish species.



[no]  the body of an animate being, the trunk of a tree.

do: tino.



[nq]  to be racially Polynesian, brown skinned: kili huaalava, ‘brown skinned’.



[n]  pumice or volcanic rock.  Not indigenous to Sikaiana but arrives by drifting.



1.[np]  the time when a particular fruit or nut comes into season, the harvest time.

2.[n]  a ritual occurring when the following fruits came into season: tava, kulu, ihi, tukuhala.  People were forbidden from harvesting these fruits until a special ceremony was performed by the aliki, pule and taumunimuni.  The aliki controlled the distribution of tava and kulu in the malae, the takala controlled the distribution of ihi and tukuhala at Telahu.  (PCR).

sa: piaka, hakaukai, hakammate.



[vs]  to be high, of a structure or tree.



[np]  the wooden planks of an outrigger canoe.  Sometimes used for short distance travel.



1.[no]  a double canoe or katamaran.  Not made on Sikaiana, but claimed to be the type of boat used by Tongan invaders under a man named Vaeoma about 8 to 12 generations ago.

2.[n]  a seaplane (frequently seen during the Second World War).



(from PPN ^fue ‘creeper’).

[nf]  a creeper, plant species.



[vt]  to brush away flies.



[nf]  a very small fly species, often found near stored coconut sap {kaleve}.



[vs]  to be secret.



(from PPN ^fuhi).

1.[np]  a bunch of coconuts.  The hui kamatuu seems to have had some ritual significance and often appears in fairy stories {tala} with magical power.  It was also placed in outrigger canoes {vaka hai ama} under one of the boom rods {kiato lottonu} to ensure the safety of the boat when on long distance voyages.

sa: kasani.

2.[prefix]  used in the names of some of the founder heroes of Sikaiana with their reputed place of origin following: Tehui Atahu, Tehui Luaniua, Tehui Peilau, Tehui Takuu. (One person told me that these people came with followers, like a cluster of coconuts.



[suffix]  for counting numbers by tens in counting birds, coconuts and money.  This system is often used by younger speakers for counting fish and puddings. Sehui, ‘ten’; luahui, ‘twenty’; tonnuhui, ‘thirty’; hannahui, ‘forty’; limanahui, ‘fifty’; onnahui ‘sixty’; hitunohui, ‘seventy’; vannahui, ‘eighty’; sivanahui, ‘ninety’.


hhui (huhui)

[vt]  to use something for the first time.  Idiom: hhui tau laakau, lit., ‘use your stick for the first time; first intercourse’.

ps: huuia.



[vt]  to dip in water to clean, to wash lightly, to soak.

ps: huihuilia.


huihui manu

1.[na]  a group of birds in flight.

2.[na]  a group of birds tied together when brought back after bird catching {seu manu}.



[no]  a necklace made by stringing together shells or beads.



[vt]  to open up an earth oven.

ps: hukea.



[vi]  to dance in a European style, usually to the music of a guitar {kitaa} or Western tapes.  Started in late 1930s with the introduction of the phonograph.


hhula(huhula, ffula)

[vs]  to be inflated, blown up.

opp: ppaka.

tr: hakahhula <to blow up, as of a balloon>.



[no] oedema, a swelling of the limbs.



[vt]  to pull back the glans of the penis.  (Restricted).



(from PPN ^fuli).

1.[vt]  to turn over.  Compounds: huli hakatevahi, ‘turn on the side’; huli hakahaoli, ‘turn face down’; huli hakataliana, ‘turn face up’.

st: tahuli,

ps: hulia, vulisia.

2.[vt, vs] to show a film; to begin, of a film. Te ata ku huli, ‘the film is starting’.

sa: ata ola.

3.[na]  the trump suit in card games.

sa: kaihulihuli.



(from huli ‘turn’ + sala ‘wrong’).

1.[nao]  a parable, metaphor; figurative or hidden speech.  This refers to song composition or ordinary occasions in which the speaker wants to hide the meaning of a conversation from others present or use metaphors to enrich meaning.

2.[vq]  to compose a song or speak in the above manner.



[vi]  to turn back in direction, to return.

do: hulimai muli <to come back>.



[vi]  to run, to run away, for plural subjects. I teika lle, maatou ni hulo ki loto ao, ‘during the teika lle, we ran away into the bush’.

do: aavana hulo.


hulu #1

[vt]  to smear with mud or dirt. I te niu iaa, maatou ni hulu te kau tamaahine, ‘during the New Year’s Day, we smeared mud on the young women’. During my stays in the early 1980s, on New Years Day there was a practice of taking the dirt from pots and pans and smearing people in the faces with the dirt.)


hulu #2

(from PPN ^fulu).

[no]  very fine body hair.

cn: huluhulu.



[no]  body hair.


huluhulu mata

[no]  upper eye lash.



[nf]  a sea slug species.

ge: kava.



[vs]  to double up with different things, to place two different things one on top of the other; to be married twice; to wear two layers of clothing; hunatolu, three layers.

cn: tualua.



[no]  a reciprocal term of ascending and descending generation in‑laws; any person spouse calls father {tamana}, mother {tinana} mother’s brother {inoa} or grandparent {tupuna};any person that is married to someone speaker calls child {tama}, grandchild {mokupuna} or sister’s child {inoa}.  (A respect relationship).

cn: maa #2.

do: haihunaona <to be in the relationship described above>.



1.[no] scabies.

2.[vs]  to be scraped, of a string or fishing line.



[no]  pubic hair.  (Restricted).


hhuta (huhuta, ffuta)

[vs]  to be unable to hold back one’s emotions. Tona loto ni hhuta, ‘his anger flared up’.  (Archaic).

tr: hakahhuta <to let out emotions>.



(from PPN ^futi).

[nf]  banana.  Varieties include: huti popo, huti paapaa, huti ula, huti valu, huti paku. Some varieties are named after the people who brought them to the island: huti a Anitolo, huti a Teikamai, huti a Manni, huti a Naleau, huti a Vaeoma, huti a Teilamea.

sa: osi, hakasina.


hhuti (huhuti, ffuti)

(from PPN ^futi).

1.[vt]  to pull or tug. Te tahe ku hhuti te vaka, ‘the current pulled the boat’; hhuti te uka, ‘pull the fishing line’; hhuti te maea, ‘a tug of war with a rope’; hhuti te heleki, ‘raise the flag’.

rp: hutihuti,

ps: huutia <to be pulled, most often as by wind or current>.

2.[vt]  to struggle to have one’s opinion prevail: hhuti te talatala, ‘to argue for a particular viewpoint’, hhuti te maea, ‘a tug of war with a rope’.

ps: hutihutia <to be struggled over>,

do: haihutihuti.



(from hhuti ‘to pull out’).

1.[vt]  repeated derivative of @hhuti.

2.[vt]  to pluck out, as plucking the feathers of birds in preparation for cooking.  Idiom: hutihuti toku talaha, lit.: ‘pluck my beard’; ‘to show wisdom and age’.



(from PPN ^futu ‘Barringtonia’).

[nf]  a plant species, Barringtonia?.


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